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   2018| January-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 19, 2021

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Ethical issues in dentist–patient interactions
Josep Maria Ustrell-Torrent, Maria Rosa-Buxarrais Estrada, Geni Ustrell-Mussons, Olga Serra-Escarp, Mireia Pascual-Sancho, Marwan Traboulsi, Carles Subirà-Pifarré, Pere Riutord-Sbert, Armand Arilla-Almunia
January-June 2018, 8(1):1-5
The dental profession holds a special trust in the community, and the best dentist–patient relationship should be based on that trust. The patient has the rights to be fully and appropriately informed as well as to be involved in decisions about treatment. The dentist has the duty to put the patient first and to treat patients taking into account their desires as long as these expectations are within the bounds of accepted treatment. The dentist should provide dental care without discrimination and prejudice. The best doctor–patient relationship is based on honesty, provision of high-quality and timely treatment, keeping the patient safe and healthy. This article presents our point of view of how should be the dentist–patient under the current demands on the part of patients and society, with a focus on the crucial role of ethical issues not only in postgraduate studies but also in consideration of ethical issues throughout the career of dentist in usual practice.
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Long-term outcome evaluation of faculty development program for dental educators: A questionnaire survey
Usha Sathyanarayanan, Shivasakthy Manivasakan, Bindu Meera John
January-June 2018, 8(1):6-12
Purpose: Faculty development programs (FDP) are essential to equip teachers with the knowledge and skills required to fulfil their multiple roles. In India, dental educators undergo minimal training in teaching and related responsibilities. Long-term outcomes of such programs are not reported in any literature. This questionnaire survey was conducted to analyze the long-term outcome of a FDP, conducted for dental educators, at four levels of Kirkpatrick's model of evaluation. Methods: Beginning in 2013, dental educators in a health-professions university underwent FDP in two phases. The topics covered were toward the instructional development of the faculty, such as education as system, teaching-learning principles/methods/media, assessment and evaluation principles/methods, and curriculum process. Medical educators of the university conducted the first phase of the training over an 8-month period. Subsequently, the Dental Education Unit was formed, which then conducted the second phase of training for the newly recruited faculty over 4 months. The immediate outcome was assessed with feedback and a posttest. Long-term outcome, at the end of the 3rd year, was evaluated using an online questionnaire that was sent to 56 dental educators who were trained in both phases. Results: A response rate of 100% was obtained. About 94% of the faculty reported satisfaction toward the workshop and a positive attitudinal change; 85% of them reported knowledge/skill gain and changes in their teaching practices; 78% of the faculty perceived changes in educational policies of the institution; and 70% of them perceived an improvement in students' performance. Conclusion: This 3-year follow-up evaluation showed acceptable changes in the dental educators' teaching competence, the institution's educational policies, and in the students' performance, as perceived by the study participants, after the FDP.
  4,584 389 -
A comparative study for the evaluation of self-medication practices among dental students in a tertiary care dental teaching institute in Delhi
Deep Inder, Pawan Kumar, Md Faiz Akram, Seema Manak
January-June 2018, 8(1):17-22
Background: Self-medication (SM) is defined as the use of medicines by individuals to treat self-diagnosed conditions or symptoms without professional consultation. SM is rampant in countries with limited access to health care and lack of stringent regulations and patient education. Without adequate knowledge and awareness, SM may prove fatal. However, if practiced correctly, it can save time and money. The present study was conducted with an objective to compare the patterns of SM in first-year and final-year dental students, at a tertiary care dental teaching institute in Delhi. Materials and Methods: It was a quantitative, prospective, and descriptive cross-sectional study based on designed self-administered questionnaire, framed after consulting previous studies. Results: The data were summarized as the number and percentage in the form of tables, graphs, and pie chart. Google percentage calculator was employed to calculate percentage and generate charts for pictographic representation of our results. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 19, and Chi-square test was applied to identify the level of significance among variables. Conclusions: SM is a regular practice by dental students and needs to be curbed at earliest. Such practice tends to influence their behavioral pattern of drug prescribing in future. There is a need to conduct regular continuing medical education and workshops to create awareness about risks and adverse consequences of SM to ensure rational and safe use of medicines including antibiotics. Committees should be constituted at hospital level to continuously monitor the dispensaries/pharmacy stores, to make sure that drugs are dispensed on authorized prescription. Dispensing personnel should be held accountable for every purchase made by the consumer.
  4,461 411 -
Medical skills training for undergraduate dental students
Mahsa Nikaein, Mohammad Dadgostarnia, Aidin Parnia
January-June 2018, 8(1):13-16
Context: Medical emergencies can happen at any time; dentists and dental students as the members of the health-care system are expected to play an effective role in these situations. All dental schools in Iran provide dental students with the dental emergency management course, but the course is theoretical, and students do not find the opportunity to practice different maneuvers, especially airway management maneuvers, injection, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Aims: In this study, we investigated the necessity of learning medical skills, including injection, establishing intravenous line access, practical CPR, and first aid, on undergraduate dental students using a questionnaire. Settings and Design: In this cross-sectional study, 84 dental students were enrolled to fill out a questionnaire about the necessity of learning certain clinical skills; they subsequently participated in a 1-day-long practical medical skills training workshop. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 84 dental students in our study to fill out a questionnaire, and then we held a 1-day-long practical medical skills training workshop for 2 days to study if workshops are effective to achieve the desired educational goals or not. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS software version 20 (Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the data. Descriptive measures were used for the assessment of the categorical data. Results: Almost all students agreed on the necessity of learning mentioned skills, including blood pressure measurement, injection, CPR, and first aid. Most of them believed that medical skills training for students would enhance their knowledge. Conclusions: Our results showed that most of the students believed that learning mentioned skills in the dentistry educational curriculum is necessary and should be included in the educational program. We suggest that dental students be introduced to these educations throughout their professional curriculum. Our pilot evaluation suggests that workshops would be effective to achieve the desired goals.
  3,875 364 -
Relationship between attitude toward persons with dementia and knowledge of dementia in Taiwanese dental hygiene students: A cross-sectional study
Sumio Akifusa, Hsiu-Yueh Liu, Mao-Suan Huang, Madoka Funahara, Maya Izumi, Kazuaki Harada, Yasuo Shono
January-June 2018, 8(1):23-31
Purpose: In an aging society, fostering an appropriate attitude toward persons with dementia and knowledge of dementia is important for dental hygiene students. This study aimed to investigate the factors related to the attitude and the knowledge. Subjects and Methods: Between May and June 2019, 227 students of two universities in Taiwan were surveyed. We developed the Taiwanese versions of the dementia attitude, knowledge, and ageism scales from Japanese versions. Data related to an association with persons with dementia and older adults were also collected. Results: Data from 186 students were used in the analysis. Scores of the attitude and ageism scales were significantly correlated; however, scores of the knowledge assessment scale were not correlated with those of the other two scales. Interest in dementia was associated with positive attitude, and association of persons with dementia with higher knowledge. Desire to work with patients with dementia was associated with positive attitude and lower ageism, but not knowledge. Binomial logistic regression analysis revealed ageism was correlated with attitude (1 odds ratio: 1.12, confidence interval 1.07–1.18, P < 0.001. Conclusions: The attitude toward persons with dementia was associated with ageism, but not knowledge in Taiwan dental hygiene students. As the study year increased, the attitude was more negative.
  3,773 339 -
An ethical awareness among dental interns in dental practice
Halima Alsadiya, Rathika Rai, B Eswaran
January-June 2018, 8(1):32-40
Background: Code of ethics has to be maintained by the dentists at all levels, however for marketing reasons this has been ignored to a greater extent to establish or grow a dental practice, but does this degrade or have a negative impact by undermining the profession as a whole? Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the level of cognizance and implementation of marketing dentistry among dental interns. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study survey comprising 25 multiple-choice questions was provided to 300 dental interns from different colleges. The filled questionnaires were collected in 15 days and the results were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test is used. Results: 24.7% of interns report marketing is ethical and 59.3% of interns think that without marketing, dentistry is seen inferior on the whole. Despite 56.4% of interns agreeing that it does have a negative impact on the profession, around 87.6% of them strongly agree that it has served the community when combined with better quality services. Conclusion: An attitude change seems to be emerging in the upcoming budding dentists. It should be understood that the Council did not intend to moralize, but to guide and a truthful advertising can be a solid foundation for building a trusted dentist-patient relationship. The emergence of modern technology and socialization itself is another challenge, with the nature of change ethical issues remains the same.
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Methods of teaching and adequacy of the undergraduate orthodontic curriculum: Perception of Nigerian orthodontic faculty
Elfleda A Aikins, Ikenna G Isiekwe, Oluwatosin O Sanu
January-June 2018, 8(1):41-46
Background: It is crucially important that undergraduate studies prepare students to be internationally relevant and employable. Thus, the curriculum must be constantly reviewed to ensure this. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of orthodontic faculty in Nigeria about the adequacy and global relevance of the undergraduate orthodontic curriculum in Nigerian dental schools and the most effective methods of lecture delivery to undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from orthodontic lecturers using anonymous structured self-administered questionnaires. Results: About half of the respondents (47.1%) believed that the curriculum used in their dental schools was adequate, while majority (70.1%) reported that it was globally relevant. Majority (88.2%) of the respondents believed that oral lectures with Microsoft PowerPoint presentations were the most effective method of lecture delivery. The use of whiteboard (29.4%), projector with transparencies (17.6%), and blackboard (11.8%) were considered the least effective methods by participants. Conclusion: Orthodontic faculty members in Nigeria believe that the current undergraduate curriculum, though adequate, can be improved upon. Oral lectures with Microsoft PowerPoint presentations were considered as the most effective method of lecture delivery by Nigerian undergraduate orthodontic lecturers.
  2,172 174 -