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   2016| January-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since October 11, 2017

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Professional differences between dental and nursing students' views on conscience
Funda Gulay Kadioglu, Sibel Öner Yalçın, Kadıoğlu Selim
January-June 2016, 6(1):8-13
Background: The conscience is an essential value in healthcare and has a central position in ethics education. In clinical practice, healthcare professionals including students can be involved in challenging situations when they had to make difficult choices between following rules and their conscience. Aim: The purposes of this study were to determine and to compare the views of healthcare (dental and nursing) students on conscience. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out at a dental school and a nursing school in Turkey. A sample of 564 students (264 were from a dental school and 300 were from a nursing school) completed a self-reported questionnaire consisted of Likert-6 type 16 items concerning conscience. Descriptive statistics and independent t-tests were used for data analysis (SPSS 20.0) with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were employed to determine the correlation between the items and the age of responders. Results: While dental students were more likely to agree with the items of “our conscience can give us the wrong signals” and “our conscience expresses our social values;” nursing students were more likely to agree with the strong items “we cannot avoid the voice of conscience” and “when I follow my conscience, I develop as a human being,” and there were statistically significant differences between the groups (P < 0.001). Both groups tended to disagree with the statement, “I have to deaden my conscience to keep working in health care.” Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that conscience is important for both professional groups. However, there are statistically significant differences between the dental and nursing students' views on conscience. Since the dental students' lower level of conscience is unacceptable from an ethical point of view and nursing students' high levels of conscience may cause moral stress for themselves, dental and nursing ethics curriculum should be updated by adding lectures concerning conscience.
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Qualitative assessment of ethical issues in dental practice: An expert opinion
Vanishree M Kemparaj, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, HL Jayakumar, Umashankar Gangadhariah Kadalur
January-June 2016, 6(1):20-26
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the ethical issues in dental practice using the experts opinion. Methodology: The study was conducted among 15 bioethicists. The bioethicists working in various healthcare institutions and nongovernmental organizations were interviewed with the open-ended questions to describe the possible ethical challenges that now exist in dental practice. They were also questioned regarding the influence of ethical issues on dental profession, patients, and community. Further, they were probed how to overcome such an ethical challenge in dental practice. The statements given by bioethicists were analyzed using common coding, constant comparative method, and inductive approach of qualitative data analysis. Attempts were made to look into the theoretical insight of the statements and discrepancies in coding were discussed among the investigators until the consensus was reached. Finally, 18 categories of perceived ethical challenges in dental practice emerged. Results: The ethical challenges were issues such as competence of dentist, conflict of interest, overtreatment, lack of time, practicing defensive medicine, paternalism, confidentiality and its limit, informed consent, infectious diseases, lack of awareness, management issues such as commercialization of dental practice, high cost of dental care, training of dental professionals, hospital management policies, advent of new technologies, and lack of guidance from professional organizations. Conclusion: The study helped identify the present ethical challenges prevailing in dental practice in Indian scenario. It also helps sensitize the dental professionals in maintaining and providing quality dental care. It is important to incorporate ethical standards in daily dental practice. It is needed to provide appropriate training methods in the dental profession for continuing toward acceptable ethical behavior in dentistry.
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Dental interns' study motivation and perception in formulating their specialty preferences in Bhubaneswar, Odisha: A cross-sectional study
Nupur Sharma, Kittu Jain
January-June 2016, 6(1):1-7
Background: Need to be constantly updated for professional and economic stability in today's competitive world has made a specialization in dentistry very essential. The aspirations and reasons for choosing a particular specialty for postgraduation contribute a lot for the future of that particular specialty. This study aims to identify the preference of specialty and the factors affecting the choice of specialty areas among dental graduates in a dental institution in Bhubaneswar, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in November 2014 on 43 interns in a dental college in Bhubaneswar. A 10-item close-ended questionnaire extracted information on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = extremely important to 1 = not at all important) pertaining to possible future career directions, choice of postgraduate specialization, and factors influencing them. Data collected was analyzed using the SPSS statistical package, version 17. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were sought. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The top ranked specialties for postgraduation were orthodontics 27.9% (n =12), endodontics 25.6% (n = 11), and oral surgery 18.6% (n = 8). Parental (86%, n = 37) and family (62.8%, n = 27) encouragement and support was recorded as the most important factor in the pursuance of postgraduation followed by encouragement from close friends (60.5%, n = 26) and mentor (51.2%, n = 22) by the interns. Conclusion: The knowledge of factors influencing the choice of postgraduation may help provide important information to aid in planning educational programs, set priorities, and plan for the provision of adequate health care.
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Research and publishing practices, attitudes, and barriers among dental faculty: Results of a survey study of 200 teachers across India
Arpita Rai, Ansul Kumar, Lejoy Abraham, Akhilesh Chandra, Mandeep Kaur, Shamimul Hasan
January-June 2016, 6(1):34-40
Objectives: Research experience imparts skills such as literature search, analyzing data, and critical appraisal of evidence and is associated with continued academic development, evidence-based clinical practice, and future research activity. There is a paucity of literature reflecting attitude of dental faculty toward research and publication. This study aims to ascertain research and publishing practices, attitudes, and barriers among dental faculty. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of dental faculty (mean age 37.6 years, 100 males/100 females) from dental colleges across India was done between June and August 2015. A 24-point questionnaire was framed and validated, and data from 200 participants were collected after seeking informed consent. Results: This study revealed that 138 (69%) teachers were involved in research projects and 180 (90%) had articles published in journals. The most common reason for not being involved in research was lack of time (25.8%) and for not having publications was lack of opportunity (50%). The main motivation to consider publication was career progression (53%) and selection of journal was mainly based on journal's prestige (40%). Majority of faculties were aware of impact factor, plagiarism, and H-index; however, 45% were unaware of MeSH keywords. Forty-three percent had training in research methodology, scientific writing, or publishing practices, and 93% were willing to participate in such a conference. The entire faculty agreed that research methodology should be made part of the curriculum at postgraduate level, 96% agreed that research hours should be allotted separately in the curriculum, whereas 51% of teachers approved that the completion of research project should be mandatory for promotion. Conclusion: This study revealed the positive attitude of teachers toward research and publication.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice of advocates regarding dental jurisprudence in Chennai: A cross-sectional study
B Brinda, PD Madan Kumar, Shyam Sivasamy, I Nanda Balan
January-June 2016, 6(1):45-52
Background: With the advent of Consumer Protection Act in 1986, awareness among the public on their consumer rights has increased. Health professionals can be litigated for medical negligence under the Consumer Protection Act. This had led to an increase in medicolegal issues in the recent past. The advocates (Doctors of Law) play a vital role in solving these issues and delivering justice to the victims. Hence, a sound knowledge on medical and dental jurisprudence is mandatory for these legal professionals. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding dental jurisprudence among the advocates practising in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 180 advocates belonging to three groups each with sixty advocates namely: Group I (advocates completed under graduation in law), Group II (advocates specialized in Criminology), and Group III (advocates specialized in other fields of law). A 26 item questionnaire was used for the study. Based on the responses given, the knowledge score was calculated with one point assigned for each correct response. The knowledge score of the three groups was compared between the three groups statistically. Results: The mean KAP score of Group I was 6.8 ± 2.1, Group II was 9.0 ± 2.1, Group III was 6.8 ± 2.4, and this difference was statistically highly significant (P = 0.001 and F = 16.007). Nearly 71% of the advocates handle medicolegal cases issues of which issues related to unethical practice (31%) was very frequent. 92% of them felt the coverage of dental jurisprudence in their study curriculum was not adequate and they required extra reading to handle such cases. Conclusion: The present study concludes that almost all the advocates who participated in the study had inadequate knowledge in medical and dental jurisprudence, including those specialized in criminology, who fared better than the other groups.
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Difference in the level of knowledge regarding Consumer Protection Act among dentist before and after interventional program: A comparative study
Deeksha Gijwani, Simarpreet Singh, Anmol Mathur, Diljot Kaur Makkar, Vikram Pal Aggarwal, Aditi Sharma
January-June 2016, 6(1):41-44
Introduction: Knowledge about medical ethics and Consumer Protection Act (CPA) is very essential now a day as it is the era of litigations. Thus, this study was performed to assess the level of knowledge regarding CPA among dentist before and after the interventional program. Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out among dentist who was working independently or in institutes using a self-structured questionnaire comprising of 24 questions regarding the awareness of CPA. Results: Before intervention, the mean knowledge score of MDS (9.17 ± 1.91) was more than postgraduation (PG) students (8.54 ± 1.79) and BDS (7.83 ± 1.68), but after intervention, the mean knowledge score of PG (15.28 ± 2.27) got increased to more than the MDS (13.43 ± 1.98) and BDS (10.96 ± 1.47). Conclusion: With increasing incidents of litigations in relation to medical profession the level of knowledge toward CPA needs to be upgraded.
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The use of information and communication technology among undergraduate students in dental training
Wai Mun Chan, Yi Ying Chai, Asma Alhusna Abang Abdullah
January-June 2016, 6(1):27-33
Aims: This study aims to investigate the current knowledge, skills, and opinions of undergraduate dental students at local universities in Malaysia with respect to information and communication technology (ICT). Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study involving a convenient sample of 359 dental students from two universities in Malaysia, i.e., Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), and Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM). Subjects and Methods: The use of ICT among the students was assessed using a questionnaire that had been pretested. The components of the questionnaire consisted of access and availability of computers, computer activities, information technology (IT) literacy and competence, Internet access, activities involving Internet and dentistry and use of ICT in clinical management. Ethical approval was obtained from UKM Research Ethics Committee. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using SPSS version 22. Results: The sample comprised of 78.8% of females and 21.2% of males with the mean age of 21.21 years old. The majority were Malays (72.4%) and Chinese (25.3%). Most of the students were from UKM (65.7%). The total of clinical students were 62.4%. Majority of the students had access to computers and Internet. They possessed adequate IT knowledge and skills, and they agreed that ICT resources were mandatory for education in dentistry. However, there were still some students who complained of obstacles in using the computers for patients' data storage and retrieval, especially in UKM. Conclusions: The students demonstrated favorable attitude and perception toward utilization of computers and Internet for education in dentistry.
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Perception of postgraduate dental resident doctors towards the objective structured clinical examination
Julie Omole Omo, Joan Emien Enabulele
January-June 2016, 6(1):14-19
Introduction: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating students' skills and competencies. Aim: This study aimed to assess the perceptions of postgraduate dental residents toward OSCE. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among fifty postgraduate dental residents' doctors (senior and junior residents) during one of their update courses in February 2015 with a self-administered questionnaire to probe their perceptions about OSCE. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. Results: A total of fifty questionnaires were administered to consenting residents, and all questionnaires were filled and returned giving a 100% response rate. There was a male preponderance with a male: female ratio of 1.5:1. The respondents' ages varied with 58% belonging to the 31–35 years' age group. More than half (56%) of the respondents agreed that they understood the aim and objectives of OSCE. With regard to OSCE being a valid assessment tool for clinical competence, 46% agreed and 6% strongly agreed that it was a valid tool. More than half (52%) of the respondents had favorable perceptions about OSCE. There was a statistically significant relationship between the status of respondents and their perception with regard to preparation for OSCE and impact on knowledge. The most objective and reliable form of examination was reported to be multiple choice questions by 56% and 58% of the respondents, respectively. Conclusion: Perceptions of postgraduate dental residents about the OSCE were favorable. However, there is a need to adjust the postgraduate curriculum to accommodate specific training modules for OSCE.
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